Overinflated and Bursting: Growth Prospects of the US, China, and Global Trade

The port of Singapore is the world's largest transshipment port. Global trade growth is projected to clock in at 3.2% in 2015, the worst performance since the Great Recession.
The port of Singapore, depicted, is the world’s largest transshipment port. Global trade growth is projected to clock in at 3.2% in 2015, the worst performance since the Great Recession.

The International Monetary Fund has again cut its forecast for global GDP growth in its World Economic Outlook, which is now only 3.1%, a decrease of 30 bps from 2014. This is during a time in which the vast majority of the world’s central banks have lowered their discount rate, with some even adopting NIRP. To complicate matters even more, the European Central Bank is in the process of massive quantitative easing program, while the Bank of Japan is anticipated to resume theirs towards the end of October.

This week global growth is based almost solely on asset bubbles created by the economic distortions of central banks. The Federal Reserve in the United States is perhaps the most infamous example, when it purchased $3.7 trillion in securities through open market operations in three rounds of QE from 2009 to 2014. Equity markets in the US are still in this bubble, albeit without quantitative easing, the bull market is beginning to reflect signs of subsiding.

The fundamentals of the US economy are disturbingly weak during this expansion, leaving many to wonder if the Federal Reserve will raise the federal funds rate in the next FOMC meeting. PCE is currently at 0.3% on an annualised basis, far below the level the Fed would consider optimal for raising rates. The latest BLS report was an abject disappointment with only 142,000 jobs added in September and labour force participation diving to a 38-year low of 62.4%. Considering these reports, it is unlikely that a rate hike will occur, however if it does, it will most likely be a small 25 bps, which could place this current bubble in jeopardy.

Projections from the IMF report peg US GDP growth at 2.6% in 2014. This will be strenuously difficult to achieve, as the latest data from the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta’s GDPNow index nowcast third quarter growth at 0.9% annualised, combined with 0.6% in Q1 and 3.9% in Q2.

A large feature of the WEO focuses on the state of the Chinese economy. The nation recently underwent the correction of a bubble in the equity market, which quickly prompted liquidity support and trading restrictions from the People’s Bank of China and China Securities Regulatory Commission, respectively. Despite these measures, the Shanghai Composite rests at just over 3,000 at 6 October market closing, equal to the trough evident in late August. Li Keqiang stated on 10 September that the PBOC will not begin a quantitative easing program, which signifies that the Communist Party has finally obtained an elementary level of competence. Due to this burst and subsequent slowdown, the report projects Chinese GDP to grow at under 7% in 2015, the rate long regarded as a technical support.

The highlight of the WEO also the most depressing inclusion. Global trade, which is less affected by myopic actions of central banks, is predicted to grow at only 3.4% in 2015. This level is the lowest seen since the end of the financial crisis of 2008-09 and is unconventionally low during an economic expansion. Global trade has grown significantly faster than other components of the world economy due to increasing levels of globalisation. Growth rates this low reflect that GDP growth is propped up only by central banks.

Despite the plead of many economists, global central banks have continued easing their monetary policy, the only exception being the Reserve Bank of India, and have produced asset bubbles combined with economic stagnation as a result. Many problems facing the world economy, ranging from overregulation to high welfare spending to a lack of property rights, will not be rectified, as the motives for reform are greatly inhibited by the constant cycles promulgated by central banks. While another financial crisis is not the most desirable outcome, it is the only way to restore the proper function of price discovery and create a pathway for policy reform, both from central bank and government.


ECB Goes All In with QE

On 5 March 2015, European Central Bank President Mario Draghi announced a €1 trillion quantitative easing program, allocating €60 billion in monthly security purchases until September 2016.
On 5 March 2015, European Central Bank President Mario Draghi announced a €1 trillion quantitative easing program, allocating €60 billion in monthly security purchases until September 2016.

After deciding earlier this morning to keep the discount rate at a record low 0.05%, Mario Draghi, the President of the European Central Bank, announced a quantitative easing programs of sovereign treasury notes, mortgage-backed securities, and covered bonds. The QE program will begin on 9 March with €60 billion of asset purchases until September 2016, totaling €1 trillion ($1.1 trillion). The program will purchase bonds with a negative coupon as long as the rate is not below the ECB’s deposit rate, which is -0.2%, but will not buy more than a 25% share of a bond issue to prevent the ECB from having a blocking majority in case of debt restructuring.

While this sort of economic stimulus failed in the United States with the Federal Reserve’s $3.5 trillion program, the ECB believes that expanding the money supply to increase the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices, the Eurozone’s inflation indicator, will spur economic growth to a “prosperous level”, which Draghi describes as 1.5% annual GDP growth.

Even though the new 1.5% growth projection for 2015 is abysmal at best, it isn’t certain that the European Union will even achieve that. China, the EU’s largest trading partner, has lowered its GDP growth forecast to 7% for 2015 amid fears of a real estate bubble burst. Additionally, the possibility of a “Grexit”, or Greek exit from the Eurozone, would send Europe into an economic spiral, undermining the viability of the Euro. As stated in previous articles, none of the major problems facing the EU, such as inefficient state-owned enterprises, high tax rates, excessive regulation, and insolvent pension systems, are being rectified by national governments or the EU at-large. As a result, it should not surprise many that the region has difficulty achieving 1.5% growth despite €60 billion a month of asset purchases.

Perhaps the most depressing part of the ECB meeting earlier today were the HICP projections. While the 2015 inflation forecast was lowered to 0% from 0.7% in the December 2014 report, the 2016 forecast was raised from 1.3% to 1.5%. Why did these trends so in opposite directions? Draghi and other members of the ECB’s Executive Board are hoping that “an increase in oil prices will raise inflation to a sustainable level”. The ECB is betting the entire QE program on the prediction that OPEC’s hesitance to cut production will collapse the US shale industry, which can avoid default and liquidation despite a negative cash flow due to extra liquidity in global markets due to QE.

This leaves the question: has the European Central Bank turned into a complete joke? In the same QE announcement, the central bank said that its intention is to be market-neutral, with the hope of creating as little “distortion” as possible. If the ECB would abide by their own claims, the state of the European economy would be nearing a “prosperous level”.